42 Etudes and Caprices
By Rodolphe Kreutzer
Etude No.23 (Adagio):
- Play 16th note grace notes as rhythmical 32nds.
- triplet 8ths and 16ths should all be played as triplet 16ths.
Edmund Singer's Edition, as well as Hermann Schroeder's edition, both published by G. Schirmer in 1894 and 1889 respectively, provide the following translations of instructions for some of the etudes (summarized). (ES for Singer's and HS for Schroeders.
HS 1: To be practiced with slow and even bowing, as well as the slurring or drawing of the tones to produce the song-like effect.
ES 4: The staccato must be practised very slowly at first, detaching all notes evenly with a loose wrist so that the bow does not leave the string. This is a sure way to learn this style of bowing well.
ES 6: This [bow] stroke must be executed firmly near the point of the bow, and all the notes must be perfectly even in loudness, this evenness can be attained by stronger pressure on up-bow notes as they are naturally more difficult to emphasize than those with down-bow.
ES 7: Follow the instructions in the previous etude.
HS 9: The purpose is to train the fingers' endurance, power, and velocity. To be repeated multiple times in daily practice without stopping at the last bar. The fingers will be come stronger, more nimble and dexterous.
ES 11: Shift lightly and rapidly, so that no intermediate tones can be heard.
ES 13: Keep the fingers down wherever possible. HS: all the necessary fingers for each broken chord should be placed simultaneously.
HS 15: Apart from the accents, which should always be laid upon the first note of a trill, the true notes of the bar, in this case, the quavers (eighth-notes) without the trill, should be particularly emphasized, otherwise the quavers with the trill may receive more than their proper value (length).
HS 24: For the playing of octaves, In the fingering 4-1, keep the 2nd and 3rd fingers down behind the 4th finger and let them glide when shifting, except where the same fingering occurs in high positions.
ES 32: Practice at first with two bows for each measure.
HS 36: This manner of bowing, called by some the Molique or the Viotti mode of bowing, should be performed closer to the middle of the bow, while in the case of the accentuated quavers, to be played near the point (tip).
HS 40: All the trills of this study are to be played as rapidly as possible, without observing any certain number of notes. Only the last trill of a chain of trills is played with a turn, which is indicated by small notes. In double-stops the trill is placed above for the upper, and below for the lower note.